0 comments on “Civil rights laws to the digital economy”

Civil rights laws to the digital economy

digital_age_cat_page-1Today’s white supremacist and neo-Nazi social media trolls have much in common with the angry mobs that beat civil rights activists at lunch counters, defaced houses of worship and stood in the schoolhouse door. Both then and now, these hateful forces sought to disenfranchise and exclude minorities and women from modern society. The tech industry has catalyzed a new generation of hate groups looking to provoke tensions and precipitate violence online. The time has come to deploy civil rights laws to the digital economy.

Hateful activities on social media platforms aimed at racial, ethnic and religious minorities, women and the LGBTQ community are not harmless; they terrorize and interfere with a person’s engagement with the digital public square in a manner that chills speech and stifles the civic participation of entire targeted communities. Hateful trolls promote and incite real-world hate crimes as well, causing their targets to live in fear for their safety.

It has become clear that major online platforms are either unable or unwilling to fix the problem of online abuse.

Fifty years ago, the civil rights movement ushered in legislation that helped integrate brick-and-mortar commerce nationwide, through public accommodations laws and the sacrifice and dedication of countless men and women committed to combating racism and other forms of discrimination.

A public accommodation is a private business that offers its services to the public at large. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 created a means to combat unjust discrimination and segregation in many areas of the 20th century’s economy, transforming our nation for the better. Many of our civil rights milestones of the last fifty years would not be possible without the equal right to use public accommodations.

But because these laws were written decades ago, they did not anticipate the Internet. While public accommodations laws apply to online businesses in several states, like California and New York, some other state and federal laws have not yet addressed the issue. We can close these gaps by clarifying the definition of what counts as a public accommodation. While this proposal requires only brief legislation, the civil rights impact would be monumental. In the meantime, civil rights advocates should assertively use the state laws that clearly apply to online commerce.

Online public accommodations laws should protect civil rights in two key ways:

  1. First, it is illegal to interfere with, threaten, coerce, or otherwise impede a person’s use of a public accommodation because of their immutable characteristics, such as race or religion. Public accommodations laws, applied to large Internet platforms, should provide a direct recourse against some of the endemic harassment and intimidation of racial and religious minorities, women and members of the LGBTQ community on many platforms. In addition to being able to bring civil lawsuits, there are criminal laws to punish those who use violence or threats of violence to interfere with public accommodations.
  2. Second, it is illegal for a public accommodation to directly discriminate against individuals because of their immutable characteristics. If a business opens its doors to the general public, then it should not arbitrarily or unfairly deny service to anyone. Large Internet-enabled services should be no different. If a social media platform chooses to design their system in a way that is discriminatory, the company should be held legally accountable for that choice.

Public accommodations protections for large online platforms would not be burdensome to the Internet economy. Making websites safer for disenfranchised and targeted communities will increase their engagement and the profits derived from that engagement. Brick-and-mortar businesses have thrived under these laws for over fifty years; this would simply level the playing field between online and offline businesses to ensure equal expectations across all streams of commerce.

At the same time, we can protect online innovation and competition with reasonable size thresholds that exempt small Internet startups while holding large incumbents accountable. Extending public accommodations protections also does not require any changes to the Internet laws that built our modern online world, such as the Communications Decency Act. This proposal will not break the Internet.

Public accommodations laws are strong, established, tested, well-understood and balanced civil rights protections. They defend the dignity and equal opportunity of all individuals to participate fully in our society. Decades of experience have demonstrated their success in integrating many aspects of offline commerce. As hate and discrimination surge to threaten online communities, it is time to update our civil rights toolkit.


0 comments on “7 Digital skills are not optional in today’s tech savvy world (UNCTAD)”

7 Digital skills are not optional in today’s tech savvy world (UNCTAD)

unctadNegative stereotypes about women and girls studying science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subjects are among the impediments to an inclusive world where hi-tech solutions solve global problems, the 21st session of the UN Commission on Science and Technology for Development(CSTD), hosted by UNCTAD, heard at a meeting in Geneva on 15 May.

An all-woman panel discussed the theme of building digital competencies to benefit from existing and emerging technologies, with a special focus on gender and youth dimensions.

Recalling that women had played pivotal roles in the history of computing, Shirley Malcom, head of the directorate of education and human resources at the American Association for the Advancement of Science, said it was “refreshing” to see the CSTD focus on issues of gender and youth in its deliberations.

Meanwhile, Helena Dalli, Malta’s European affairs and equality minister, said female role models were an important factor in promoting more women to take up STEM subjects and pursue careers in science and technology.

Profound changes for all

Speaking in a video message, the meeting also heard from Geraldine Byrne Nason, chair of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women, on the importance of coordination between intergovernmental bodies.

To help guide the conversation, UNCTAD prepared a background report, steered by Shamika N. Sirimanne, director of UNCTAD’s, division on technology and logistics, and head of the CSTD Secretariat.

Setting out the issues

The remarkable technological progress the world has seen recently is transforming the fabric of our lives. The profound changes – driven by the spread of new information and communications technologies (ICTs) – will affect everyone’s life and every country’s economy.

For example, sensor devices deployed all over the world are improving agricultural productivity and making it possible to map and control epidemic outbreaks. And digital platforms are creating new job opportunities.

But Big Data can unfortunately also be used to influence democratic processes – as the world witnessed in recent elections in the United States and Europe – and automation means that certain jobs will no longer be available for humans.

“Opaque algorithms can ‘bake-in’ bias and exclusion,” Ms. Malcom said.

Whether the effects of technological change will be more positive than negative depends on the getting the right skills into the right people’s hands.

Miriam Nicado García, rector of Cuba’s University of Informatics Sciences (UCI), explained how her university was a new venture, begun in 2002, that aimed to tackle this problem for her country. Software produced in Cuba for health, education, legal and tourism applications was being made available free to other countries, she said.

A skills mismatch

Estimates show that already by 2020 90% of new jobs will require ICT skills. Yet more than one-third of workers in developed countries that are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) currently lack the digital know-how needed. And over half the population in these economies have no digital skills at all – with female employees usually being less tech savvy than their male counterparts.

“The more we let the gender divide grow, the more economic disparities will grow,” Ms. Dalli said when explaining the proactive measures Malta had taken, as a small island nation with few resources, to promote women in STEM fields.

In fact, technology in the workplace can affect women and men differently. ICT service jobs are normally well paid, but the share of women in such positions remains very low, especially in developing countries.

A recent survey among 13 major developed and emerging economies showed that female workers tend to hold low-growth or declining occupations, such as sales and administrative jobs.

Although women are less represented in sectors threatened by automation, such as manufacturing and construction, the report prepared by UNCTAD ahead of the event says that since there are few women in STEM job families, they may not be well placed in the economy to benefit from the increasing demand for workers with tech skills.

Such a mismatch between what businesses need and what job-seekers offer will slow economic growth significantly. What’s worse, portions of the population could become unemployable. And with unemployment levels already high in many parts of the world, such a situation would be devastating, not just for the individuals but also for their families and communities.

Getting the right skills in the hands of the workforce will be even more important in developing countries, where billions of young people will enter the job market in the coming decades.

In Africa alone, about 11 million young people will enter the labour market every year for the next decade. If governments don’t help equip new job seekers with the right skills, they may have to deal with rising youth unemployment.

However, according to Sophia Bekele, founder & CEO of DotConnectAfrica Group, whose works helps African women run tech start-ups, developing countries may have a competitive advantage over older, more developed markets.

“The global South has best opportunity to leapfrog in the digital economy instead of reinventing the wheel,” she said.

Four levels of digital competency

According to the UNCTAD report, four different levels of digital skills are needed during the journey from adopting new devices to creating new technologies.

“The most fundamental skill sets for individuals and companies in the digital era are capabilities to adopt new technologies,” the report says, adding that “digital literacy for all is a basic requirement for every citizen to participate fully in the digital society.”

So every country, no matter the stage of economic development, needs to have in place basic digital education and training programmes for all its citizens.

For people, being “digital literate” means being able to use the basic functions of common devices, such as a computer. For a business, it means “knowledge about ICT installations in the existing business system,” the report says.

But more and more professions, even beyond the ICT sector, require the ability to adapt and creatively use available technologies. And it is when a countries workforce can modify existing technology or design new systems and devices technologies that real value is added to the economy.

“To maximize the benefits of new technology, countries and companies in developing countries need to have the digital skills to introduce modifications to new technologies,” the report says. This is because advanced technologies are often designed for contexts – both technical and social – that differ from the realities of many developing economies, and therefore must be adapted to the local context, the report adds.

Adding a gender dimension to the issue of context, Ms. Malcom said that very often, time itself was a scarce commodity for women that policies designed to help them must reflect.

A moving target

Technology’s impact, however, extends well beyond the labour market, and being tech savvy has increasingly become important for enjoying a good quality of life in what has become and increasing digital world.

“With increasing numbers of software and applications being used to accomplish everyday communicational and informational tasks, basic knowledge of ICTs is now essential for citizens to solve everyday problems, as well as to engage in community activities,” the report says.

Digital skills are a multifaceted moving target. According to the report, six major drivers influence what technical competencies people need:

“Increasing globalization, extreme longevity, workplace automation, fast diffusion of sensors and data processing power, ICT-enabled communication tools and media, and the unprecedented reorganization of work driven by new technologies and social media, which are massively increasing collaboration opportunities.”

But the other, more specific digital competencies required will likely depend on the country’s economic specialization and industrial development.

For example, the report says, “Countries where the manufacturing sector dominates economic growth will require talents, experts and a workforce with specialized skills in industrial robotics, automation and the Internet of Things.”

While the skills that workers need to use technology increases, so does the list of the complementary soft skills necessary to perform in the digital economy.

Human skills in a robot’s world

But digital skills are not enough to adapt to changing labour markets demands. Paradoxically, as work becomes more automated, the unique human skills that cannot be easily replaced by machines become ever more important.

So building and strengthening skills such as complex problem solving, critical thinking, and creativity, will be essential to create the flexibility required for the current and future demands for the workplace, the report says.

The need for human creativity and innovation helps explain why professions like engineering and science are less at threatened by digitalization and computerization, the report says. Likewise, occupations that involve sophisticated communication skills will also be in a better position in the digital era.

“For example, natural language processing algorithms can detect emotions underlying text, but are often inaccurate in comprehending sarcasm, humour or irony,” the report says.

Finally, even if computers and robots could perform every task, economies would still rely on people to come up with the new businesses ideas. That’s why the report calls on governments to equip people with the digital entrepreneurship skills.

source: http://unctad.org